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Tuesday, January 18, 2011

ALLAH: GOD in ISLAM

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God in Islam
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Allah (Islam)

In Islamic theology God (Arabic Allāh) is the all-powerful and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer, and judge of the universe... Islam puts a heavy emphasis on the conceptualization of God as strictly singular (tawhid)... God is unique (wahid) and inherently one (ahad), all-merciful and omnipotent...
Creation and ordering of the universe is seen as an act of prime mercy for which all creatures sing God's glories and bear witness to God's unity and lordship.... According to the Islamic teachings, God exists
 without a place...

According to the Qur'an,

 لَّا تُدۡرِڪُهُ ٱلۡأَبۡصَـٰرُ وَهُوَ يُدۡرِكُ ٱلۡأَبۡصَـٰرَ‌ۖ وَهُوَ ٱللَّطِيفُ ٱلۡخَبِيرُ (١٠٣

"No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision. God is above all comprehension,
yet is acquainted with all things"

(Qur'an 6:103)

God in Islam is not only majestic and sovereign, but also a personal God:
According to the Qur'an,

وَنَحۡنُ أَقۡرَبُ إِلَيۡهِ مِنۡ حَبۡلِ ٱلۡوَرِيدِ (١٦

"God is nearer to a person than his jugular vein..."
(Quran 50:16)

God responds to those in need or distress whenever they call.
Above all, God guides humanity to the right way, “the holy ways.”

According to Islamic tradition there are 99 Names of God (al-asma al-husna lit. meaning: "The best names") each of which evoke a distinct attribute of God.... All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name....

Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and most frequent of these names are "the Compassionate" (Al-Rahman) and "the Merciful" (Al-Rahim)...

Islam teaches that God, as referenced in the Qur'an, is the only God and the same God worshipped by members of other Abrahamic religions such as Christianity and Judaism.

 وَلَا تُجَـٰدِلُوٓاْ أَهۡلَ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبِ إِلَّا بِٱلَّتِى هِىَ أَحۡسَنُ إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مِنۡهُمۡ‌ۖ وَقُولُوٓاْ ءَامَنَّا بِٱلَّذِىٓ
أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡنَا وَأُنزِلَ إِلَيۡڪُمۡ وَإِلَـٰهُنَا وَإِلَـٰهُكُمۡ وَٲحِدٌ۬ وَنَحۡنُ لَهُ ۥ مُسۡلِمُونَ (٤٦

"And argue not with the People of the Scripture unless it be in (a way) that is better, save with such of them as do wrong; and say: We believe in that which hath been revealed unto us and revealed unto you; our God and your God is One, and unto Him we surrender..."
(29:46)

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Oneness of God
Main article: Oneness of God (Islam)


Oneness of God or Tawḥīd is the act of believing and affirming that God (Arabic: Allah) is one and unique (wāḥid).... The Qur'an asserts the existence of a single and absolute truth that transcends the world; a unique and indivisible being who is independent of the entire creation...

According to the Qur'an:

قُلۡ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ أَحَدٌ (١) ٱللَّهُ ٱلصَّمَدُ (٢) لَمۡ يَلِدۡ وَلَمۡ يُولَدۡ (٣) وَلَمۡ يَكُن لَّهُ ۥ ڪُفُوًا أَحَدٌ (٤

"Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him."
(Sura 112:1-4)



وَرَبُّكَ ٱلۡغَنِىُّ ذُو ٱلرَّحۡمَةِ‌ۚ إِن يَشَأۡ يُذۡهِبۡڪُمۡ وَيَسۡتَخۡلِفۡ مِنۢ بَعۡدِڪُم مَّا يَشَآءُ كَمَآ أَنشَأَڪُم مِّن ذُرِّيَّةِ قَوۡمٍ ءَاخَرِينَ (١٣٣

"Thy Lord is self-sufficient, full of Mercy: if it were God's will, God could destroy you, and in your place appoint whom God will as your successors, even as God raised you up from the posterity of other people."
(Sura 6:133)

According to Vincent J. Cornell, the Qur'an also provides a monist image of God by describing the reality as a unified whole, with God being a single concept that would describe or ascribe all existing things:

هُوَ ٱلۡأَوَّلُ وَٱلۡأَخِرُ وَٱلظَّـٰهِرُ وَٱلۡبَاطِنُ‌ۖ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَىۡءٍ عَلِيمٌ (٣

"God is the First and the Last, the Outward and the Inward; God is the Knower of everything..."
(Sura 57:3)

Some Muslims have however vigorously criticized interpretations that would lead to a monist view of God for what they see as blurring the distinction between the creator and the creature, and its incompatibility with the monotheism of Islam...

The indivisibility of God implies the indivisibility of God's sovereignty which in turn leads to the conception of universe as a just and coherent moral universe rather than an existential and moral chaos (as in polytheism). Similarly the Qur'an rejects the binary modes of thinking such as the idea of duality of God by arguing that both good and evil generate from God's creative act and that the evil forces have no power to create anything.

God in Islam is a universal god rather than a local, tribal or parochial one; an absolute who integrates all affirmative values and brooks no evil.
Tawhid constitutes the foremost article of the Muslim profession... To attribute divinity to a created entity is the only unpardonable sin mentioned in the Qur'an... Muslims believe that the entirety of the Islamic teaching rests on the principle of Tawhid...

________________________________________________



God's attributes

Name of Allāh written in Arabic calligraphy by 17th century Ottoman artist Hâfız OsmanThe Qur'an refers to the attributes of God as God's “most beautiful names”



وَلِلَّهِ ٱلۡأَسۡمَآءُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ فَٱدۡعُوهُ بِہَا‌ۖ وَذَرُواْ ٱلَّذِينَ يُلۡحِدُونَ فِىٓ أَسۡمَـٰٓٮِٕهِۦ‌ۚ سَيُجۡزَوۡنَ مَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ (١٨٠

"Allah's are the fairest names. Invoke Him by them. And leave the company of those who blaspheme His names. They will be requited what they do..."
(7:180)


قُلِ ٱدۡعُواْ ٱللَّهَ أَوِ ٱدۡعُواْ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنَ‌ۖ أَيًّ۬ا مَّا تَدۡعُواْ فَلَهُ ٱلۡأَسۡمَآءُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ‌ۚ وَلَا تَجۡهَرۡ بِصَلَاتِكَ وَلَا تُخَافِتۡ بِہَا وَٱبۡتَغِ بَيۡنَ ذَٲلِكَ سَبِيلاً۬ (١١٠

"Say (unto mankind): Cry unto Allah, or cry unto the Beneficent, unto whichsoever ye cry (it is the same). His are the most beautiful names. And thou (Muhammad), be not loud-voiced in thy worship nor yet silent therein, but follow a way between..."
(17:110)


ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ‌ۖ لَهُ ٱلۡأَسۡمَآءُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ (٨

"Allah! There is no God save Him. His are the most beautiful names..."
(20:8)


هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡخَـٰلِقُ ٱلۡبَارِئُ ٱلۡمُصَوِّرُ‌ۖ لَهُ ٱلۡأَسۡمَآءُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ‌ۚ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ
وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ (٢٤)


"He is Allah, the Creator, the Shaper out of naught, the Fashioner. His are the most beautiful names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorifieth Him, and He is the Mighty, the Wise."

According to Gerhard Böwering,

"They are traditionally enumerated as 99 in number to which is added as the highest name (al-ism al-aʿẓam), the supreme name of God, Allāh. The locus classicus for listing the divine names in the literature of qurʾānic commentary is 17:110

 قُلِ ٱدۡعُواْ ٱللَّهَ أَوِ ٱدۡعُواْ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنَ‌ۖ أَيًّ۬ا مَّا تَدۡعُواْ فَلَهُ ٱلۡأَسۡمَآءُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ‌ۚ وَلَا تَجۡهَرۡ بِصَلَاتِكَ وَلَا تُخَافِتۡ بِہَا وَٱبۡتَغِ بَيۡنَ ذَٲلِكَ سَبِيلاً۬ (١١٠

“Call him Allah (the God), or call him Ar-Rahman (the Gracious); whichsoever you call upon, to him belong the most beautiful names and thou (Muhammad), be not loud-voiced in thy worship nor yet silent therein, but follow a way between. ,”


هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ‌ۖ عَـٰلِمُ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَٱلشَّهَـٰدَةِ‌ۖ هُوَ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ (٢٢) هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلۡمَلِكُ ٱلۡقُدُّوسُ ٱلسَّلَـٰمُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُ ٱلۡمُهَيۡمِنُ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡجَبَّارُ ٱلۡمُتَڪَبِّرُ‌ۚ سُبۡحَـٰنَ ٱللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشۡرِڪُونَ (٢٣) هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡخَـٰلِقُ ٱلۡبَارِئُ ٱلۡمُصَوِّرُ‌ۖ لَهُ ٱلۡأَسۡمَآءُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ‌ۚ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ (٢٤)
and also 59:22-24, which includes a cluster of more than a dozen divine epithets... The most commonly used names for god in Islam are:
  • The Most High (al-Ala)
  • The Most Great (al-Aziz)
  • The Ever Forgiving (al-Ghaffar)
  • The Ever Providing (ar-Razzaq)
  • The Lord and Cherisher of the Worlds (Rabb al-Alameen)
  • The Ultimate Truth (al-Haqq)
  • The Eternal Lord (al-Baqi)
  • The Sustainer (al-Muqsith)
  • The Source of Peace (As-Salaam)
Islamic theology makes a distinction between the attributes of God and the divine essence Furthermore, it is one of the fundamentals in Islam that God exists without a place and has no resemblance to his creations. For instance, God is not a body and there is nothing like him. In the Quran it says what mean "Nothing is like him in any way," [see Quran 42:11]. Allah is not limited to Dimensions. ________________________________________________ Names of God
It is believed in Islam that God has 99 beautiful names, honoring His virtues:  
  • Al-Malik - The Absolute Ruler
  • Al-Quddus - The Pure One
  • As-Salam - The Source of Peace
  • Al-Mu'min - The Inspirer of Faith
  • Al-Muhaymin - The Guardian
  • Al-'Aziz - The Victorious
  • Al-Jabbar - The Compeller
  • Al-Mutakabbir - The Greatest
  • Al-Khaliq - The Creator
  • Al-Bari' - The Maker of Order
  • Al-Musawwir - The Shaper of Beauty
  • Al-Ghaffar - The Forgiving
  • Al-Qahhar - The Subduer
  • Al-Wahhab - The Giver of All
  • Ar-Razzaq - The Sustainer
  • Al-Fattah - The Opener
  • Al-'Alim - The Knower of All
  • Al-Qabid - The Constrictor
  • Al-Basit - The Reliever
  • Al-Khafid - The Abaser
  • Ar-Rafi' - The Exalter
  • Al-Mu'izz - The Bestower of Honors
  • Al-Mudhill - The Humiliator
  • As-Sami - The Hearer of All
  • Al-Basir - The Seer of All
  • Al-Hakam - The Judge
  • Al-'Adl - The Just
  • Al-Latif - The Subtle One
  • Al-Khabir - The All-Aware
  • Al-Halim - The Forebearing
  • Al-'Azim - The Magnificent
  • Al-Ghafur - The Forgiver and Hider of Faults
  • Ash-Shakur - The Rewarder of Thankfulness
  • Al-'Ali - The Highest
  • Al-Kabir - The Greatest
  • Al-Hafiz - The Preserver
  • Al-Muqit - The Nourisher
  • Al-Hasib - The Accounter
  • Al-Jalil - The Mighty
  • Al-Karim - The Generous
  • Ar-Raqib - The Watchful One
  • Al-Mujib - The Responder to Prayer
  • Al-Wasi' - The All-Comprehending
  • Al-Hakim - The Perfectly Wise
  • Al-Wadud - The Loving One
  • Al-Majíd - The Majestic One
  • Al-Ba'ith - The Resurrector
  • Ash-Shahid - The Witness
  • Al-h Haqq - The Truth
  • Al-Wakil - The Trustee
  • Al-Qawi - The Possessor of All Strength
  • Al-Matin - The Forceful One
  • Al-Wáli - The Governor
  • Al-Hamid - The Praised One
  • Al-Muhsi - The Appraiser
  • Al-Mubdi - The Originator
  • Al-Mu'id - The Restorer
  • Al-Muhyi - The Giver of Life
  • Al-Mumit - The Taker of Life
  • Al-Hayy - The Ever Living One
  • Al-Qayyum - The Self-Existing One
  • Al-Wajid - The Finder
  • Al-Májid - The Glorious
  • Al-Wahid - The Only One
  • Al-Ahad - The One
  • As-Samad - The Satisfier of All Needs
  • Al-Qadir - The All Powerful
  • Al-Muqtadir - The Creator of All Power
  • Al-Muqaddim - The Expediter
  • Al-Mu'akhkhir - The Delayer
  • Al-Awwal - The First
  • Al-Akhir - The Last
  • Az-Zahir - The Manifest One
  • Al-Batin - The Hidden One
  • Al-Walí - The Protecting Friend
  • Al-Muta'ali - The Supreme One
  • Al-Barr - The Doer of Good
  • At-Tawwib - The Guide to Repentance
  • Al-Muntaqim - The Avenger
  • Al-Afu - The Forgiver
  • Ar-Ra'uf - The Clement
  • Malik al-Mulk - The Owner of All Dhul-Jalali
  • Wal-Ikram - The Lord of Majesty and Bounty
  • Al-Muqsit - The Equitable One
  • Al-Jami - The Gatherer
  • Al-Ghani - The Rich One
  • Al-Mughni - The Enricher
  • Al-Mani' - The Preventer of Harm
  • Ad-Darr - The Creator of The Harmful
  • An-Nafi - The Creator of Good
  • An-Nur - The Light
  • Al-Hadi - The Guide
  • Al-Badi - The Originator
  • Al-Baqi - The Everlasting One
  • Al-Warith - The Inheritor of All
  • Ar-Rashid - The Righteous Teacher
  • As-Sabur - The Patient One
________________________________________________ God's omniscience
The Qur'an describes God as being fully aware of everything that happens in the universe, including private thoughts and feelings, and asserts that one can not hide anything from God:   [10:61]
In whatever business thou mayest be, and whatever portion thou mayest be reciting from the Qur'an,- and whatever deed ye (mankind) may be doing,... We are witnesses thereof when ye are deeply engrossed therein...  Nor is hidden from thy Lord (so much as) the weight of an atom on the earth or in heaven. And not the least and not the greatest of these things but are recorded in a clear record.
External links:
My Link : English.wikipedia.

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